Protein Modification (Golgi): Advanced Look --> 1.) Golgi
Lysosomal proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must be further modified upon reaching the cis-cisternae region of the Golgi apparatus in order to create the signal that will direct them to their final destination. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.
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Modification of lysosomal proteins called hydrolases begins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum where a core oligosaccharide is added to the protein.
The hydrolases are then packaged into transport vesicles and transferred to the cis-cisterna of the Golgi apparatus.
Inside the cis-cisterna of the Golgi, the core oligosaccharide is phosphorylated.
One of the mannose residues in the oligosaccharide receives a phosphate by way of two sequential reactions.
The modification of the core oligosaccharide on the hydrolase enzyme results in the creation of an mannose 6-phosphate signal unique to proteins destined for the lysosome. Other signals target other proteins for different destinations.
Upon reaching the trans-Golgi, the M6P portion of the hydrolase binds to M6P receptors embedded in the trans-Golgi membrane.
The membrane of the trans-Golgi then buds off into a vesicle containing the receptors and the bound hydrolases.